Jason Steele - Forex Power Strategy Course ...

80 + FREE Courses : Updated Today !!

80 + FREE Courses : Updated Today !!
  1. [31m total length] Active Directory Administration for Helpdesk Technicians https://www.udemy.com/course/active-directory-administration-for-helpdesk-technicians/?couponCode=AUGUST2020
  2. [48m total length] Anti-Money Laundering Masterclass: AML, KYC and Compliance https://www.udemy.com/course/anti-money-laundering-aml-kyc/?couponCode=AUGFIR20
  3. [6h 15m total length] English Writing Basics: Learn to Write Sentences in English https://www.udemy.com/course/english-writing-basics-learn-to-write-sentences-in-english/?couponCode=2FDBEBDDD7E597AEF9CD
  4. [1hr 56min] Custom WordPress Blog Theme Using Elementor With NO Coding https://www.udemy.com/course/custom-wordpress-blog-theme-using-elementor-no-coding/
  5. [2h 2m total length] OBS Studio – Ultimate Livestreaming Guide to OBS Studio https://www.udemy.com/course/ultimate-beginners-guide-to-open-broadcaster-softwareobs/?couponCode=9842BAA5E96CB5B5A0E1
  6. Learn Python programming From Scratch -2020 https://www.udemy.com/course/learn-python-programming-from-scratch-2020/
  7. Pattern Printing Programs in Java for Beginners https://www.udemy.com/course/pattern-printing-programs-in-java-for-beginners/
  8. HVAC Chiller System & HVAC CHW Flow Rate Calculation https://www.udemy.com/course/hvac-chiller-flow-rate-calculation-and-chilled-sytem-intro/?couponCode=F3860294249AA5B25B2C
  9. [72 lectures • 4h 8m total length] HTML & CSS - Certification Course for Beginners https://www.udemy.com/course/html-css-certification-course-for-beginners-e/?couponCode=FREEHTMLCSS3DAYS
  10. Learn to Calculate faster than a Calculator https://www.udemy.com/course/learn-to-calculate-faster-than-a-calculato
  11. [26 lectures • 45m total length] easy way to learn arabic (basics) https://www.udemy.com/course/easy-way-to-learn-arabic-basics/?couponCode=FREE1AUG
  12. [56 lectures • 12h 19m total length56 lectures • 12h 19m total length] Macro VBA Excel para quem NUNCA programou até o Avançado https://freebiesglobal.com/macro-vba-excel-para-quem-nunca-programou-ate-o-avancado
  13. [23 lectures • 52m total length] English Grammar tenses & structures https://www.udemy.com/course/english-grammar-course-tenses-structures/?couponCode=AUGUSTTHIRD
  14. [21 lectures • 3h 20m total length] Basic & Essential Excel Formulas And Functions Course 2020 https://www.udemy.com/course/most-essential-popular-excel-formulas-and-functions/?couponCode=BASIC2020
  15. [372 lectures • 31h 17m] The Business Analysis Certification Program (IIBA – ECBA) $9.99 https://www.udemy.com/course/the-business-analysis-certification-program-iiba-ecba/?couponCode=BACP999
  16. [40 Hours Videos, 525 lectures] Project Management Professional Certification Program (PMP) $9.99 https://www.udemy.com/course/project-management-professional-certification-program-pmp/?couponCode=STAYSAFE
  17. [51 lectures • 2h 16m total length] C++ programming: For beginners https://www.udemy.com/course/c-plus-plus-programming-made-simple/?couponCode=C88749725910D8E0EC40
  18. [4h 28m total length] Microsoft Excel -Basic Excel/ Advanced Excel Formulas https://www.udemy.com/course/microsoft-excel-basic-excel-advanced-excel-formulas/?couponCode=76CC6BA6766C9CB8FFBF
  19. [5h 3m total length] 2020 Jenkins Tutorial For Beginners https://www.udemy.com/course/jenkins-tutorial-for-beginners/?couponCode=HAPPYDAYS
  20. [12h 23m total length] 2020 - Python 3 Tutorial for Beginners https://www.udemy.com/course/2020-python-3-tutorial-for-beginners/?couponCode=HAPPYDAYS
  21. [9h 42m total length] Instagram Clone App To Master Android and Firebase https://www.udemy.com/course/instagram-clone-app-to-master-android-and-firebase/?couponCode=HAPPYDAYS
  22. [30m total length] معرفة اهم برامج ترجمة الأفلام... How to translate a movie https://www.udemy.com/course/subtitlers/?couponCode=CE1F0415D2FD8B73E16B
  23. [2h 46m total length] 2020-Complete (ELK Stack) ElasticSearch Logstash and Kibana https://www.udemy.com/course/complete-elk-stack-elasticsearch-logstash-and-kibana/?couponCode=HAPPYDAYS
  24. [4h 46m total length] Aprende todo sobre Notion: 3 cursos en 1 https://www.udemy.com/course/aprende-todo-sobre-notion-3-cursos-en-1/?couponCode=DESCUBRENOTION
  25. [5h 9m total length] Fundamentos de PHOTOSHOP 2020 para PRINCIPIANTES https://www.udemy.com/course/photoshop-2020-para-principiantes/?couponCode=ABCCB996A1470E29DC14
  26. [1h 4m total length] Microsoft Excel - Análisis de datos con tablas dinámicas https://www.udemy.com/course/microsoft-excel-analisis-de-datos-con-tablas-dinamicas/?couponCode=81F1AB8C0F2A03E2FCAB
  27. [1h 15m total length] Aprende SQL desde cero: ¡Curso con mas de 50 ejercicios! 1 https://www.udemy.com/course/aprende-sql-desde-cero-curso-con-mas-de-50-ejercicios/?couponCode=C143D5CCE18D566A1C5D
  28. [1h 18m total length] Comienza con R ¡Añade valor a tu CV en 2 horas! https://www.udemy.com/course/el-arte-de-programar-en-r-anade-valor-a-tu-cv/?couponCode=97FEBD3F4F0887905590
  29. [1h 41m total length] Tableau 10 desde cero. Crea un impacto con la información. https://www.udemy.com/course/tableau-10-desde-cero/?couponCode=DF4E5DE2A80605238BCB
  30. [220 questions] NEW 2020 CEH 312-50 v10 PRACTICE EXAM QUESTIONS https://www.udemy.com/course/new-2020-ceh-312-50-v10-practice-exam-questions/?couponCode=D282670524EDAEAB3566
  31. [50m total length] Migrate Windows service to Azure https://www.udemy.com/course/migrate-windows-service-to-azure/?couponCode=MIGRATEWS2A
  32. [2h 27m total length] The Complete Microsoft Excel Pivot Tables and Pivot Charts https://www.udemy.com/course/the-complete-microsoft-excel-pivot-tables-and-pivot-charts/?couponCode=AUG2020
  33. [3h 20m total length] Basic & Essential Excel Formulas And Functions Course 2020 https://www.udemy.com/course/most-essential-popular-excel-formulas-and-functions/?couponCode=BASIC2020
  34. [3h 11m total length] Sass: Complete Sass Course (CSS Preprocessor) With Projects https://www.udemy.com/course/sass-complete-course-with-project-css-preprocessor-with-projects/?couponCode=ZERO2HERO
  35. Engineering Design - Overview https://www.udemy.com/course/engineering-design-overview/
  36. [2hr 53min] Joomla 3 - The Basics https://www.udemy.com/course/joomla-3-the-basics/
  37. [1h 53m total length] Learn PROVEN STEPS to Make Money on YouTube! https://www.udemy.com/course/learn-to-make-money-on-youtube/?couponCode=ADF6608FDEFDC6046F43
  38. [325 questions] NEW AWS Certified Cloud Practitioner: 5 Full Practice Exams https://www.udemy.com/course/new-aws-certified-cloud-practitioner-5-full-practice-exams/?couponCode=58A6BA44CA0DBE897800
  39. [52m total length] English Grammar tenses & structures https://www.udemy.com/course/english-grammar-course-tenses-structures/?couponCode=AUGUSTTHIRD
  40. [34h 55m total length] Machine Learning & Deep Learning in Python & R https://www.udemy.com/course/data_science_a_to_z/?couponCode=AUG152020
  41. [39m total length] The Kali OS Uses In Cyber Security https://www.udemy.com/course/cyber-security-kali-linux-course/?couponCode=IJA-11-S
  42. [35m total length] Scanning Cyber Security Hacking Course https://www.udemy.com/course/learn-and-understand-ethical-hacking-from-scratch/?couponCode=1918JAU
  43. [31m total length] Vulnerability Identification In Cyber Security Course https://www.udemy.com/course/vulnerability-identification-in-cyber-security-course/?couponCode=BONG-11
  44. [31m total length] Exploitation Cyber Security Course https://www.udemy.com/course/exploitation-cyber-security-course/?couponCode=LAMAIN
  45. [9h 40m total length] Tableau Training: Master Tableau For Data Science https://www.udemy.com/course/tableau-training-master-tableau-for-data-science/?couponCode=TABLEAU555
  46. [1h 14m total length] Lean Management in 2020: Agile + Kanban with 7+ Tools & Tips https://www.udemy.com/course/lean-management-a/?couponCode=LEAN7897
  47. [19 lectures • 1h 17m total length] Encuentra una gran idea y conviértela en un negocio rentable https://www.udemy.com/course/encuentra-una-gran-idea-y-conviertela-en-un-negocio-rentable/?couponCode=IDEA_GRATIS
  48. [51 lectures • 5h 24m total length] Adobe Premiere Pro CC 2020: Video Editing for Beginners https://www.udemy.com/course/premiere-pro-with-brad-newton/?couponCode=LOCKDOWN_AUGUST
  49. The 6 steps to unlock your confidence https://www.udemy.com/course/the-6-steps-to-unlock-your-confidence/?couponCode=RMMMAK797
  50. [129 lectures • 5h 33m total length] Decluttering - Complete Organizing Home, Office, Life Course https://www.udemy.com/course/decluttering-complete-organizing-home-office-life-course/?couponCode=3DD5C28381BF82713528
  51. [12 lectures • 10h 52m total length] XML and XSD: a complete W3C-content based course (+10 hours) https://www.udemy.com/course/xml-and-xsd-a-complete-w3c-content-based-course/?couponCode=FREE-AGO
  52. [240 questions] AZ-900 - Microsoft Azure Fundamentals 2020 - Practice Tests https://www.udemy.com/course/az-900-practice-tests/?couponCode=FREE4YOU-2ND
  53. [30 lectures • 4h 8m total length] Microsoft Excel - from Beginner to Advanced(In Arabic) https://www.udemy.com/course/microsoft-excel-from-beginner-to-advancedin-arabic/?couponCode=C2C90728741A19246B71
  54. [38 lectures • 2h 18m total length] Complete Photography Masterclass: 4 courses in 1 https://www.udemy.com/course/the-photography-masterclass/?couponCode=PHOTOMASTERAUG2020
  55. Fundamentals of Network Security https://www.udemy.com/course/fundamentals-of-network-security-b/?couponCode=E59567112120EC5F7839
  56. [33 lectures • 8h 1m total length] Diseño de redes - Basado en CCDA https://www.udemy.com/course/network-desing-based-on-ccda/?couponCode=ELCIELOESELLIMITE
  57. [33 lectures • 11h 14m total length] Aprende C# desde cero. Primeros pasos con este lenguaje. https://www.udemy.com/course/aprende-c-desde-0-primeros-pasos-con-este-lenguaje/?couponCode=F9E6F9A843A30734E275
  58. [45 lectures • 38m total length] Fast track to ML, Data Science and Steganography https://www.udemy.com/course/fast-track-to-ml-datascience-steganography/?couponCode=1179204D684CB3D2342C
  59. [19 lectures • 2h 12m total length] Reverse Engineering and Software Protection https://www.udemy.com/course/reversing-software-protection/?couponCode=SPROTECT_AUG6
  60. [81 lectures • 2h 38m total length] JavaScript & jQuery - Certification Course for Beginners https://www.udemy.com/course/javascript-jquery-certification-course-for-beginners/?couponCode=YOUACCELAUG4U
  61. [58 lectures • 3h 35m total length] NGINX, Apache, SSL Encryption - Certification Course https://www.udemy.com/course/nginx-apache-ssl-encryption-certification-course/?couponCode=YOUACCELAUG4U
  62. [9 lectures • 37m total length] How the Internet Works & the Web Development Process https://www.udemy.com/course/how-the-internet-works-the-web-development-process/?couponCode=YOUACCELAUG4U
  63. [70 lectures • 4h 2m total length] HTML & CSS - Certification Course for Beginners https://www.udemy.com/course/html-css-certification-course-for-beginners/?couponCode=YOUACCELAUG4U
  64. [84 lectures • 4h 0m total length] Bootstrap & jQuery - Certification Course for Beginners https://www.udemy.com/course/bootstrap-jquery-certification-course-for-beginners/?couponCode=YOUACCELAUG4U
  65. [14 lectures • 50m total length] Introduction to Domain Names and Web Hosting - Quick Guide https://www.udemy.com/course/introduction-to-domain-names-and-web-hosting-quick-guide/?couponCode=YOUACCELAUG4U
  66. [57 lectures • 3h 15m total length] PHP & MySQL - Certification Course for Beginners https://www.udemy.com/course/php-mysql-certification-course-for-beginners/?couponCode=YOUACCELAUG4U
  67. [24 lectures • 7h 0m total length] Manual Design of G+3 RC Residential Building https://www.udemy.com/course/manual-design-of-g3-rc-residential-building/?couponCode=M_J_ASSOCIATES
  68. [13 lectures • 1h 14m total length] Python For Beginners - The Basics Of Python Development https://www.udemy.com/course/python-for-beginners-the-basics-of-python-development/?couponCode=D88B75280825D620C5F4
  69. [19 lectures • 2h 12m total length] Reverse Engineering and Software Protection https://www.udemy.com/course/reversing-software-protection/?couponCode=SPROTECT_AUG6
  70. Learn Ultimatum OpenCart Theme https://www.udemy.com/course/learn-ultimatum-opencart-theme/
  71. [22 lectures • 4h 35m total length] İş Geliştirme Faaliyetlerinin Önemi https://www.udemy.com/course/is-gelistirme-faaliyetlerinin-onemi/?couponCode=UDEMY-MEHMETAKCALI
  72. [19 lectures • 1h 53m total length] How To Earn Money From Home https://www.udemy.com/course/how-to-earn-money-from-home/?couponCode=OPENYOURMIND
  73. [66 lectures • 1h 50m total length] Agile Project Management: Scrum Step by Step with Examples https://www.udemy.com/course/scrum-master-training/?couponCode=050820_FREE
  74. [50 lectures • 6h 32m total length] Wordpress Complete Website MasterClass - Wordpress Made Easy https://www.udemy.com/course/wordpress-complete-website-masterclass-wordpress-made-easy/?couponCode=WMFREE2
  75. [57 lectures • 2h 43m total length] Memory Masterclass: Boost your Memory and Become a Genius https://www.udemy.com/course/memory-masterclass-boost-your-memory-and-become-a-genius/?couponCode=987E0CA7CF8018493254
  76. [28 lectures • 1h 5m total length] Speed Reading Masterclass: Read 1 Book Each Week https://www.udemy.com/course/speed-reading-masterclass-read-1-book-each-week/?couponCode=FFCC1FB56A234F6C6DE3
  77. [6 lectures • 1h 0m total length] Basics Of Stop Motion Animation Using Canva And OpenShot https://www.udemy.com/course/basics-of-stop-motion-animation-using-canva-and-openshot/?couponCode=CE5DDE00DD20E9A21136
  78. [23 lectures • 3h 49m total length] Introduction to Forex- learn to trade forex by yourself https://www.udemy.com/course/introduction-to-forex-learn-to-trade-forex-by-yourself/?couponCode=9EA343893E21D17B9E18
  79. [7 lectures • 1h 39m total length] Manual Design of Steel Foot Over Bridge For Civil Engineers https://www.udemy.com/course/manual-design-of-steel-foot-over-bridge/?couponCode=MJASSOCIATES
  80. [15 lectures • 2h 14m total length] Powerful Corporate & Business Strategy Taught in MBA's https://www.udemy.com/course/corporate-business-strategy-find-business-opportunities/?couponCode=5936DAFFA0CEAE2ABDD7
  81. [9 lectures • 35m total length] Self - Care guide to bring peace in your life https://www.udemy.com/course/self-care-guide-to-bring-peace-in-your-life/?couponCode=PEACEFULMOMSFREE
  82. [28 lectures • 5h 43m total length] Learn Spanish : Complete Spanish Course for Beginners https://www.udemy.com/course/spanishfirst/?couponCode=LEARNANDREVIEW
  83. Create 2 eloquent forms within 2 hours https://www.udemy.com/course/create-2-eloquent-forms-within-2-hours/
  84. [17 lectures • 2h 5m total length] Java Programming: Complete Beginner to Advanced https://www.udemy.com/course/java-programming-complete-beginner-to-advanced/?couponCode=AUGUSTPROMO
  85. FREE | Real Estate Lead Generation 2019 | FREE Course https://www.udemy.com/course/lead-generation-real-estate-2019-high-quality-realto
  86. Create Your Dream Life – A Step-by-Step Guide https://www.udemy.com/course/personal-transformation-create-your-dream-life/
  87. Introduction to Celestial Navigation for Mariners https://www.udemy.com/course/celestial-navigation-basics/
  88. Create Facebook Ads That Will Work For Your Business Success https://www.udemy.com/course/how-to-create-facebook-ads-that-will-work-for-your-business/
  89. [309 lectures • 48h 57m total length] The Complete 2020 PHP Full Stack Web Developer Bootcamp $9.99 https://www.udemy.com/course/android-development-ndk-crash-course/?couponCode=C065247312645EA9085D
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List of 95 Free Courses :

Source : https://www.facebook.com/groups/FreeCoursesWithCoupon/permalink/716371879203316/

  1. [19 lectures • 1h 17m total length] Encuentra una gran idea y conviértela en un negocio rentable https://www.udemy.com/course/encuentra-una-gran-idea-y-conviertela-en-un-negocio-rentable/?couponCode=IDEA_GRATIS
  2. [51 lectures • 5h 24m total length] Adobe Premiere Pro CC 2020: Video Editing for Beginners https://freebiesglobal.com/adobe-premiere-pro-cc-2020-video-editing-for-beginners-2
  3. The 6 steps to unlock your confidence https://www.udemy.com/course/the-6-steps-to-unlock-your-confidence/?couponCode=RMMMAK797
  4. [129 lectures • 5h 33m total length] Decluttering - Complete Organizing Home, Office, Life Course https://www.udemy.com/course/decluttering-complete-organizing-home-office-life-course/?couponCode=3DD5C28381BF82713528
  5. [12 lectures • 10h 52m total length] XML and XSD: a complete W3C-content based course (+10 hours) https://www.udemy.com/course/xml-and-xsd-a-complete-w3c-content-based-course/?couponCode=FREE-AGO
  6. [240 questions] AZ-900 - Microsoft Azure Fundamentals 2020 - Practice Tests https://www.udemy.com/course/az-900-practice-tests/?couponCode=FREE4YOU-2ND
  7. [30 lectures • 4h 8m total length] Microsoft Excel - from Beginner to Advanced(In Arabic) https://www.udemy.com/course/microsoft-excel-from-beginner-to-advancedin-arabic/?couponCode=C2C90728741A19246B71
  8. [38 lectures • 2h 18m total length] Complete Photography Masterclass: 4 courses in 1 https://www.udemy.com/course/the-photography-masterclass/?couponCode=PHOTOMASTERAUG2020
  9. Fundamentals of Network Security https://www.udemy.com/course/fundamentals-of-network-security-b/?couponCode=E59567112120EC5F7839
  10. [33 lectures • 8h 1m total length] Diseño de redes - Basado en CCDA https://www.udemy.com/course/network-desing-based-on-ccda/?couponCode=ELCIELOESELLIMITE
  11. [33 lectures • 11h 14m total length] Aprende C# desde cero. Primeros pasos con este lenguaje. https://www.udemy.com/course/aprende-c-desde-0-primeros-pasos-con-este-lenguaje/?couponCode=F9E6F9A843A30734E275
  12. [45 lectures • 38m total length] Fast track to ML, Data Science and Steganography https://www.udemy.com/course/fast-track-to-ml-datascience-steganography/?couponCode=1179204D684CB3D2342C
  13. [19 lectures • 2h 12m total length] Reverse Engineering and Software Protection https://www.udemy.com/course/reversing-software-protection/?couponCode=SPROTECT_AUG6
  14. [81 lectures • 2h 38m total length] JavaScript & jQuery - Certification Course for Beginners https://www.udemy.com/course/javascript-jquery-certification-course-for-beginners/?couponCode=YOUACCELAUG4U
  15. [58 lectures • 3h 35m total length] NGINX, Apache, SSL Encryption - Certification Course https://www.udemy.com/course/nginx-apache-ssl-encryption-certification-course/?couponCode=YOUACCELAUG4U
  16. [9 lectures • 37m total length] How the Internet Works & the Web Development Process https://www.udemy.com/course/how-the-internet-works-the-web-development-process/?couponCode=YOUACCELAUG4U
  17. [70 lectures • 4h 2m total length] HTML & CSS - Certification Course for Beginners https://www.udemy.com/course/html-css-certification-course-for-beginners/?couponCode=YOUACCELAUG4U
  18. [84 lectures • 4h 0m total length] Bootstrap & jQuery - Certification Course for Beginners https://www.udemy.com/course/bootstrap-jquery-certification-course-for-beginners/?couponCode=YOUACCELAUG4U
  19. [14 lectures • 50m total length] Introduction to Domain Names and Web Hosting - Quick Guide https://www.udemy.com/course/introduction-to-domain-names-and-web-hosting-quick-guide/?couponCode=YOUACCELAUG4U
  20. [57 lectures • 3h 15m total length] PHP & MySQL - Certification Course for Beginners https://www.udemy.com/course/php-mysql-certification-course-for-beginners/?couponCode=YOUACCELAUG4U
  21. [9 lectures • 46m total length] Windows Server 2019 New Features Explained https://www.udemy.com/course/windows-server-2019-new-features-explained/?couponCode=3C8FFCD62DB9AC3BAF5C
  22. [337 questions] CEH v10 Practice Test https://www.udemy.com/course/ceh-v10-practice-test/?couponCode=098BAFE74AA736ECE64D
  23. [24 lectures • 7h 0m total length] Manual Design of G+3 RC Residential Building https://www.udemy.com/course/manual-design-of-g3-rc-residential-building/?couponCode=M_J_ASSOCIATES
  24. [13 lectures • 1h 14m total length] Python For Beginners - The Basics Of Python Development https://www.udemy.com/course/python-for-beginners-the-basics-of-python-development/?couponCode=D88B75280825D620C5F4
  25. [19 lectures • 2h 12m total length] Reverse Engineering and Software Protection https://www.udemy.com/course/reversing-software-protection/?couponCode=SPROTECT_AUG6
  26. [165 lectures • 22h 52m total length] Amazon,Ebay,Shopify,Aliexpress Dropshipping Eğitim Serisi https://www.udemy.com/course/e-ticaret-egitimi/?couponCode=ETICARETPRO
  27. Learn Ultimatum OpenCart Theme https://www.udemy.com/course/learn-ultimatum-opencart-theme/
  28. [22 lectures • 4h 35m total length] İş Geliştirme Faaliyetlerinin Önemi https://www.udemy.com/course/is-gelistirme-faaliyetlerinin-onemi/?couponCode=UDEMY-MEHMETAKCALI
  29. [19 lectures • 1h 53m total length] How To Earn Money From Home https://www.udemy.com/course/how-to-earn-money-from-home/?couponCode=OPENYOURMIND
  30. [66 lectures • 1h 50m total length] Agile Project Management: Scrum Step by Step with Examples https://www.udemy.com/course/scrum-master-training/?couponCode=050820_FREE
  31. [50 lectures • 6h 32m total length] Wordpress Complete Website MasterClass - Wordpress Made Easy https://www.udemy.com/course/wordpress-complete-website-masterclass-wordpress-made-easy/?couponCode=WMFREE2
  32. [235 questions] Microsoft AZ-104 - Latest Practice Questions 2020 https://www.udemy.com/course/microsoft-az-104-latest-practice-questions-2020/?couponCode=FREEBIESGLOBAL.COM1
  33. [57 lectures • 2h 43m total length] Memory Masterclass: Boost your Memory and Become a Genius https://www.udemy.com/course/memory-masterclass-boost-your-memory-and-become-a-genius/?couponCode=987E0CA7CF8018493254
  34. [45 lectures • 6h 51m total length] Marketing Analytics With R 2020 https://www.udemy.com/course/marketing-analytics-with-r-2020/?couponCode=ANALYTICS77
  35. [28 lectures • 1h 5m total length] Speed Reading Masterclass: Read 1 Book Each Week https://www.udemy.com/course/speed-reading-masterclass-read-1-book-each-week/?couponCode=FFCC1FB56A234F6C6DE3
  36. [225 questions] AWS Certified Solutions Architect Professional Practice test https://www.udemy.com/course/aws-solutions-architect-professional-practice-test-updated/?couponCode=FREEBESGLOBAL.COM1
  37. [81 lectures • 3h 23m total length] Microsoft Power BI: Latest 2020 Beginner to Expert Modules https://www.udemy.com/course/microsoft-power-bi-latest-2020-beginner-to-expert-modules/?couponCode=POWER1234
  38. [6 lectures • 1h 0m total length] Basics Of Stop Motion Animation Using Canva And OpenShot https://www.udemy.com/course/basics-of-stop-motion-animation-using-canva-and-openshot/?couponCode=CE5DDE00DD20E9A21136
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Trump Didn’t Kill the Global Trade System. He Split It in Two.

This article is taken from the Wall Street Journal written about nine months ago and sits behind a a paywall, so I decided to copy and paste it here. This article explains Trump's policies toward global trade and what has actually happened so far. I think the article does a decent job of explaining the Trade War. While alot has happenedsince the article was written, I still think its relevant.
However, what is lacking in the article, like many articles on the trade war, is it doesn't really explain the history of US trade policy, the laws that the US administration is using to place tariffs on China and the official justification for the US President in enacting tariffs against China. In my analysis I will cover those points.

SUMMARY

When Trump entered the White House people feared he would dismantle the global system the US and its allies had built over the last 75 years, but he hasn't. He has realign into two systems. One between the US and its allies which looks similar to the one built since the 1980s with a few of quota and tariffs. As the article points out
Today, Korus and Nafta have been replaced by updated agreements(one not yet ratified) that look much like the originals. South Korea accepted quotas on steel. Mexico and Canada agreed to higher wages, North American content requirements and quotas for autos. Furthermore, the article points out Douglas Irwin, an economist and trade historian at Dartmouth College, calls these results the “status quo with Trumpian tweaks: a little more managed trade sprinkled about for favored industries. It’s not good, but it’s not the destruction of the system.” Mr. Trump’s actions so far affect only 12% of U.S. imports, according to Chad Bown of the Peterson Institute for International Economics. In 1984, 21% of imports were covered by similar restraints, many imposed by Mr. Reagan, such as on cars, steel, motorcycles and clothing. Protectionist instincts go so far in the US, there are strong lobby groups for both protectionist and freetrade in the US.
The second reflects a emerging rivalry between the US and China. Undo some of the integration that followed China accession to the WTO. Two questions 1) How far is the US willing to decouple with China 2) Can it persuade allies to join.
The second is going to be difficult because China's economic ties are greater than they were between the Soviets, and China isn't waging an ideological struggle. Trump lacks Reagan commitment to alliance and free trade. The status quo with China is crumbling Dan Sullivan, a Republican senator from Alaska, personifies these broader forces reshaping the U.S. approach to the world. When Mr. Xi visited the U.S. in 2015, Mr. Sullivan urged his colleagues to pay more attention to China’s rise. On the Senate floor, he quoted the political scientist Graham Allison: “War between the U.S. and China is more likely than recognized at the moment.” Last spring, Mr. Sullivan went to China and met officials including Vice President Wang Qishan. They seemed to think tensions with the U.S. will fade after Mr. Trump leaves the scene, Mr. Sullivan recalled. “I just said, ‘You are completely misreading this.’” The mistrust, he told them, is bipartisan, and will outlast Mr. Trump. both Bush II and Obama tried to change dialogue and engagement, but by the end of his term, Obama was questioning the approach. Trump has declared engagement. “We don’t like it when our allies steal our ideas either, but it’s a much less dangerous situation,” said Derek Scissors, a China expert at the American Enterprise Institute whose views align with the administration’s more hawkish officials. “We’re not worried about the war-fighting capability of Japan and Korea because they’re our friends.”
The article also points out unlike George Kennan in 1946 who made a case for containing the Soviet Union, the US hasn't explicitly made a case for containing the Soviets, Trump's administration hasn't, because as the the article explains its divided Michael Pillsbury a Hudson Institute scholar close to the Trump team, see 3 scenarios
Pillsbury thinks the third is most likely to happen, even though the administration hasn't said that it has adopted that policy. The US is stepping efforts to draw in other trading partners. The US, EU and Japan have launched a WTO effort to crack down on domestic subsidies and technology transfers requirement. US and Domestic concerns with prompted some countries to restrict Huawei. The US is also seeking to walloff China from other trade deals. However, there are risk with this strategy

ARTICLE

Trump Didn’t Kill the Global Trade System. He Split It in Two.

INTRODUCTION

My main criticism of this article is it tries like the vast majority of articles to fit US trade actions in the larger context of US geopolitical strategy. Even the author isn't certain "The first goes to the heart of Mr. Trump’s goal. If his aim is to hold back China’s advance, economists predict he will fail.". If you try to treat the trade "war" and US geopolitical strategy toward China as one, you will find yourself quickly frustrated and confused. If you treat them separately with their different set of stakeholders and histories, were they intersect with regards to China, but diverge. During the Cold War, trade policy toward the Soviet Union and Eastern Bloc was subordinated to geopolitical concerns. For Trump, the trade issues are more important than geopolitical strategy. His protectionist trade rhetoric has been fairly consistent since 1980s. In his administration, the top cabinet members holding economic portfolios, those of Commerce, Treasury and US Trade Representative are the same people he picked when he first took office. The Director of the Economic Council has changed hands once, its role isn't as important as the National Security Advisor. While State, Defense, CIA, Homeland Security, UN Ambassador, National Security Advisor have changed hands at least once. Only the Director of National Intelligence hasn't changed.
International Trade makes up 1/4 of the US economy, and like national security its primarily the responsibility of the Federal government. States in the US don't implement their own tariffs. If you add the impact of Treasury policy and how it relates to capital flows in and out of the US, the amounts easily exceed the size of the US economy. Furthermore, because of US Dollar role as the reserve currency and US control of over global system the impact of Treasury are global. Trade policy and investment flows runs through two federal departments Commerce and Treasury and for trade also USTR. Defense spending makes up 3.3% of GDP, and if you add in related homeland security its at most 4%. Why would anyone assume that these two realms be integrated let alone trade policy subordinate to whims of a national security bureaucracy in most instances? With North Korea or Iran, trade and investment subordinate themselves to national security, because to Treasury and Commerce bureaucrats and their affiliated interest groups, Iran and the DPRK are well, economic midgets, but China is a different matter.
The analysis will be divided into four sections. The first will be to provide a brief overview of US trade policy since 1914. The second section will discuss why the US is going after China on trade issues, and why the US has resorted using a bilateral approach as opposed to going through the WTO. The third section we will talk about how relations with China is hashed out in the US.
The reason why I submitted this article, because there aren't many post trying to explain US-China Trade War from a trade perspective. Here is a post titled "What is the Reasons for America's Trade War with China, and not one person mentioned Article 301 or China's WTO Commitments. You get numerous post saying that Huawei is at heart of the trade war. Its fine, but if you don't know what was inside the USTR Investigative report that lead to the tariffs. its like skipping dinner and only having dessert When the US President, Donald J Trump, says he wants to negotiate a better trade deal with other countries, and has been going on about for the last 35 years, longer than many of you have been alive, why do people think that the key issues with China aren't primarily about trade at the moment.

OVERVIEW OF THE UNITED STATES TRADE ORIENTATION

Before 1940s, the US could be categorized as a free market protectionist economy. For many this may seem like oxymoron, how can an economy be free market and protectionist? In 1913, government spending made up about 7.5% of US GDP, in the UK it was 13%, and for Germany 18% (Public Spending in the 20th Century A Global Perspective: Ludger Schuknecht and Vito Tanzi - 2000). UK had virtual zero tariffs, while for manufactured goods in France it was 20%, 13% Germany, 9% Belgium and 4% Netherlands. For raw materials and agricultural products, it was almost zero. In contrast, for the likes of United States, Russia and Japan it was 44%, 84% and 30% respectively. Even though in 1900 United States was an economic powerhouse along with Germany, manufactured exports only made up 30% of exports, and the US government saw tariffs as exclusively a domestic policy matter and didn't see tariffs as something to be negotiated with other nations. The US didn't have the large constituency to push the government for lower tariffs abroad for their exports like in Britain in the 1830-40s (Reluctant Partners: A History of Multilateral Trade Cooperation, 1850-2000).
The Underwood Tariffs Act of 1913 which legislated the income tax, dropped the tariffs to 1850 levels levels.Until 16th amendment was ratified in 1913 making income tax legal, all US federal revenue came from excise and tariffs. In contrast before 1914, about 50% of UK revenue came from income taxes. The reason for US reluctance to introduced income tax was ideological and the United State's relative weak government compared to those in Europe. After the First World War, the US introduced the Emergency Tariff Act of 1921, than the Fordney–McCumber Tariff of 1922 followed by a Smoot-Hawley Act of 1930. Contrary to popular opinion, the Smoot-Hawley Act of 1930 had a small negative impact on the economy, since imports and exports played a small part of the US economy, and the tariffs were lower than the average that existed from 1850-1914.
Immediately after the Second World War, when the US economy was the only industrialized economy left standing, the economic focus was on rehabilitation and monetary stability. There was no grandiose and ideological design. Bretton Woods system linked the US dollar to gold to create monetary stability, and to avoid competitive devaluation and tariffs that plagued the world economy after Britain took itself off the gold in 1931. The US$ was the natural choice, because in 1944 2/3 of the world's gold was in the US. One reason why the Marshall Plan was created was to alleviate the chronic deficits Europeans countries had with the US between 1945-50. It was to rebuild their economies so they could start exports good to the US. Even before it was full implemented in 1959, it was already facing problems, the trade surpluses that the US was running in the 1940s, turned to deficits as European and Japanese economies recovered. By 1959, Federal Reserves foreign liabilities had already exceeded its gold reserves. There were fears of a run on the US gold supply and arbitrage. A secondary policy of the Bretton woods system was curbs on capital outflows to reduce speculation on currency pegs, and this had a negative impact on foreign investment until it was abandoned in 1971. It wasn't until the 1980s, where foreign investment recovered to levels prior to 1914. Factoring out the big spike in global oil prices as a result of the OPEC cartel, it most likely wasn't until the mid-1990s that exports as a % of GDP had reached 1914 levels.
Until the 1980s, the US record regarding free trade and markets was mediocre. The impetus to remove trade barriers in Europe after the Second World War was driven by the Europeans themselves. The EEC already had a custom union in 1968, Canada and the US have yet to even discuss implementing one. Even with Canada it took the US over 50 years to get a Free Trade Agreement. NAFTA was inspired by the success of the EEC. NAFTA was very much an elite driven project. If the Americans put the NAFTA to a referendum like the British did with the EEC in the seventies, it most likely wouldn't pass. People often look at segregation in the US South as a political issue, but it was economic issue as well. How could the US preach free trade, when it didn't have free trade in its own country. Segregation was a internal non-tariff barrier. In the first election after the end of the Cold War in 1992, Ross Perot' based most of independent run for the Presidency on opposition to NAFTA. He won 19% of the vote. Like Ross Perot before him, Donald Trump is not the exception in how America has handled tariffs since the founding of the Republic, but more the norm.
The embrace of free trade by the business and political elite can be attributed to two events. After the end of Bretton Woods in 1971, a strong vested interest in the US in the form of multinationals and Wall Street emerged advocating for removal of tariffs and more importantly the removal of restrictions on free flow of capital, whether direct foreign investment in portfolio investment. However, the political class embrace of free trade and capital only really took off after the collapse of the Soviet Union propelled by Cold War triumphalism.
As mentioned by the article, the US is reverting back to a pre-WTO relations with China. As Robert Lighthizer said in speech in 2000
I guess my prescription, really, is to move back to more of a negotiating kind of a settlement. Return to WTO and what it really was meant to be. Something where you have somebody make a decision but have it not be binding.
The US is using financial and legal instruments developed during the Cold War like its extradition treaties (with Canada and Europe), and Section 301. Here is a very good recent article about enforcement commitment that China will make.‘Painful’ enforcement ahead for China if trade war deal is reached with US insisting on unilateral terms
NOTE: It is very difficult to talk about US-China trade war without a basic knowledge of global economic history since 1914. What a lot of people do is politicize or subordinate the economic history to the political. Some commentators think US power was just handed to them after the Second World War, when the US was the only industrialized economy left standing. The dominant position of the US was temporary and in reality its like having 10 tonnes of Gold sitting in your house, it doesn't automatically translate to influence. The US from 1945-1989 was slowly and gradually build her influence in the non-Communist world. For example, US influence in Canada in the 1960s wasn't as strong as it is now. Only 50% of Canadian exports went to the US in 1960s vs 80% at the present moment.

BASIS OF THE US TRADE DISCUSSION WITH CHINA

According to preliminary agreement between China and the US based on unnamed sources in the Wall Street Journal article US, China close in on Trade Deal. In this article it divides the deal in two sections. The first aspects have largely to do with deficits and is political.
As part of a deal, China is pledging to help level the playing field, including speeding up the timetable for removing foreign-ownership limitations on car ventures and reducing tariffs on imported vehicles to below the current auto tariff of 15%. Beijing would also step up purchases of U.S. goods—a tactic designed to appeal to President Trump, who campaigned on closing the bilateral trade deficit with China. One of the sweeteners would be an $18 billion natural-gas purchase from Cheniere Energy Inc., people familiar with the transaction said.
The second part will involve the following.
  1. Commitment Regarding Industrial Policy
  2. Provisions to protect IP
  3. Mechanism which complaints by US companies can be addressed
  4. Bilateral meetings adjudicate disputes. If talks don't produce agreement than US can raise tariffs unilaterally
This grouping of conditions is similar to the points filled under the 301 investigation which serve the basis for initiating the tariffs. I have been reading some sources that say this discussion on this second group of broader issues could only be finalized later
The official justifications for placing the tariffs on Chinese goods is found under the March 2018 investigation submitted by the office of the President to Congress titled FINDINGS OF THE INVESTIGATION INTO CHINA’S ACTS, POLICIES, AND PRACTICES RELATED TO TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER, INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY, AND INNOVATION UNDER SECTION 301 OF THE TRADE ACT OF 1974. From this investigation the United States Trade Representative (USTR) place US Tariffs on Chinese goods as per Section 301 of the Trade Act of 1974. Here is a press release by the USTR listing the reasons for placing tariffs, and the key section from the press release. Specifically, the Section 301 investigation revealed:
In the bigger context of trade relations between US and China, China is not honoring its WTO commitments, and the USTR issued its yearly report to Congress in early February about the status of China compliance with its WTO commitments. The points that served as a basis for applying Section 301, also deviate from her commitments as Clinton's Trade Representative Charlene Barshefsky paving the way for a trade war. Barshefsky argues that China's back sliding was happening as early as 2006-07, and believes the trade war could have been avoided has those commitments been enforced by previous administrations.
I will provide a brief overview of WTO membership and China's process of getting into the WTO.
WTO members can be divided into two groups, first are countries that joined in 1995-97, and were members of GATT, than there are the second group that joined after 1997. China joined in 2001. There is an argument that when China joined in 2001, she faced more stringent conditions than other developing countries that joined before, because the vast majority of developing countries were members of GATT, and were admitted to the WTO based on that previous membership in GATT. Here is Brookings Institute article published in 2001 titled "Issues in China’s WTO Accession"
This question is all the more puzzling because the scope and depth of demands placed on entrants into the formal international trading system have increased substantially since the formal conclusion of the Uruguay Round of trade negotiations in 1994, which expanded the agenda considerably by covering many services, agriculture, intellectual property, and certain aspects of foreign direct investment. Since 1994, the international community has added agreements covering information technology, basic telecommunications services, and financial services. WTO membership now entails liberalization of a much broader range of domestic economic activity, including areas that traditionally have been regarded by most countries as among the most sensitive, than was required of countries entering the WTO’s predecessor organization the GATT.
The terms of China’s protocol of accession to the World Trade Organization reflect the developments just described and more. China’s market access commitments are much more far-reaching than those that governed the accession of countries only a decade ago. And, as a condition for membership, China was required to make protocol commitments that substantially exceed those made by any other member of the World Trade Organization, including those that have joined since 1995. The broader and deeper commitments China has made inevitably will entail substantial short-term economic costs.
What are the WTO commitments Barshefsky goes on about? When countries join the WTO, particularly those countries that weren't members of GATT and joined after 1997, they have to work toward fulfilling certain commitments. There are 4 key documents when countries make an accession to WTO membership, the working party report, the accession protocol paper, the goods schedule and service schedule.
In the working party report as part of the conclusion which specifies the commitment of each member country what they will do in areas that aren't compliant with WTO regulations on the date they joined. The problem there is no good enforcement mechanism for other members to force China to comply with these commitments. And WTO punishments are weak.
Here is the commitment paragraph for China
"The Working Party took note of the explanations and statements of China concerning its foreign trade regime, as reflected in this Report. The Working Party took note of the commitments given by China in relation to certain specific matters which are reproduced in paragraphs 18-19, 22-23, 35-36, 40, 42, 46-47, 49, 60, 62, 64, 68, 70, 73, 75, 78-79, 83-84, 86, 91-93, 96, 100-103, 107, 111, 115-117, 119-120, 122-123, 126-132, 136, 138, 140, 143, 145, 146, 148, 152, 154, 157, 162, 165, 167-168, 170-174, 177-178, 180, 182, 184-185, 187, 190-197, 199-200, 203-207, 210, 212-213, 215, 217, 222-223, 225, 227-228, 231-235, 238, 240-242, 252, 256, 259, 263, 265, 270, 275, 284, 286, 288, 291, 292, 296, 299, 302, 304-305, 307-310, 312-318, 320, 322, 331-334, 336, 339 and 341 of this Report and noted that these commitments are incorporated in paragraph 1.2 of the Draft Protocol. "
This is a tool by the WTO that list all the WTO commitment of each country in the working paper. In the goods and service schedule they have commitments for particular sectors. Here is the a press release by the WTO in September 2001, after successfully concluding talks for accession, and brief summary of key areas in which China hasn't fulfilled her commitments. Most of the commitments made by China were made to address its legacy as a non-market economy and involvement of state owned enterprises. In my opinion, I think the US government and investors grew increasingly frustrated with China, after 2007 not just because of China's back sliding, but relative to other countries who joined after 1997 like Vietnam, another non-market Leninist dictatorship. When comparing China's commitments to the WTO its best to compare her progress with those that joined after 1997, which were mostly ex-Soviet Republics.
NOTE: The Chinese media have for two decades compared any time the US has talked about China's currency manipulation or any other issue as a pretext for imposing tariffs on China to the Plaza Accords. I am very sure people will raise it here. My criticism of this view is fourfold. First, the US targeted not just Japan, but France, Britain and the UK as well. Secondly, the causes of the Japan lost decade were due largely to internal factors. Thirdly, Japan, UK, Britain and France in the 1980s, the Yuan isn't undervalued today. Lastly, in the USTR investigation, its China's practices that are the concern, not so much the trade deficit.

REASONS FOR TRUMPS UNILATERAL APPROACH

I feel that people shouldn't dismiss Trump's unilateral approach toward China for several reasons.
  1. The multilateral approach won't work in many issues such as the trade deficit, commercial espionage and intellectual property, because US and her allies have different interest with regard to these issues. Germany and Japan and trade surpluses with China, while the US runs a deficit. In order to reach a consensus means the West has to compromise among themselves, and the end result if the type of toothless resolutions you commonly find in ASEAN regarding the SCS. Does America want to "compromise" its interest to appease a politician like Justin Trudeau? Not to mention opposition from domestic interest. TPP was opposed by both Clinton and Trump during the election.
  2. You can't launch a geopolitical front against China using a newly formed trade block like the TPP. Some of the existing TPP members are in economic groups with China, like Malaysia and Australia.
  3. China has joined a multitude of international bodies, and at least in trade, these bodies haven't changed its behavior.
  4. Dealing with China, its a no win situation whether you use a tough multilateral / unilateral approach. If the US endorse a tough unilateral approach gives the impression that the US is acting like the British during the Opium War. If you take a concerted Western approach you are accused of acting like the 8 Powers Alliance in 1900.
  5. Trump was elected to deal with China which he and his supporters believe was responsible for the loss of millions manufacturing jobs when China joined the WTO in 2001. It is estimate the US lost 6 Million jobs, about 1/4 of US manufacturing Jobs. This has been subsequently advanced by some economists. The ball got rolling when Bill Clinton decided to grant China Most Favored Nation status in 1999, just a decade after Tiananmen.
  6. China hasn't dealt with issues like IP protection, market access, subsidies to state own companies and state funded industrial spying.
To his credit, Trump has said his aim was not to overthrow authoritarian governments, and that even applies to the likes of Iran. The Arab spring scared Russia and China, because the US for a brief moment placed the spread of democracy over its security interest.

UNDERSTANDING HOW THE US MAKES DECISIONS REGARDING CHINA

At this moment, China or the trade war isn't an area of great concern for the American public, among international issues it ranks lower than international terrorism, North Korea and Iran's nuclear program.
According to the survey, 39 percent of the country views China’s growing power as a “critical threat” to Americans. That ranked it only eighth among 12 potential threats listed and placed China well behind the perceived threats from international terrorism (66 percent), North Korea’s nuclear program (59 percent) and Iran’s nuclear program (52 percent). It’s also considerably lower than when the same question was asked during the 1990s, when more than half of those polled listed China as a critical threat. That broadly tracks with a recent poll from the Pew Research Center that found concern about U.S.-China economic issues had decreased since 2012.
In looking at how US conducts relations foreign policy with China, we should look at it from the three areas of most concern - economic, national security and ideology. Each sphere has their interest groups, and sometimes groups can occupy two spheres at once. Security experts are concerned with some aspects of China's economic actions like IP theft and industrial policy (China 2025), because they are related to security. In these sphere there are your hawks and dove. And each sphere is dominated by certain interest groups. That is why US policy toward China can often appear contradictory. You have Trump want to reduce the trade deficit, but security experts advocating for restrictions on dual use technology who are buttressed by people who want export restrictions on China, as a way of getting market access.
Right now the economic concerns are most dominant, and the hawks seem to dominate. The economic hawks traditionally have been domestic manufacturing companies and economic nationalist. In reality the hawks aren't dominant, but the groups like US Companies with large investment in China and Wall Street are no longer defending China, and some have turned hawkish against China. These US companies are the main conduit in which China's lobby Congress, since China only spends 50% of what Taiwan spends lobbying Congress.
THE ANGLO SAXON WORLD AND CHINA
I don't think many Chinese even those that speak English, have a good understanding Anglo-Saxon society mindset. Anglo Saxons countries, whether US, UK, Canada, Australia, New Zealand and Ireland are commerce driven society governed by sanctity of contracts. The English great philosophical contributions to Western philosophy have primarily to do with economics and politics like Adam Smith, John Locke, David Hume and Thomas Hobbes. This contrast with the French and Germans. Politics in the UK and to a lesser extent the US, is centered around economics, while in Mainland Europe its religion. When the Americans revolted against the British Empire in 1776, the initial source of the grievances were taxes.
Outside of East Asia, the rest of the World's relationship with China was largely commercial, and for United States, being an Anglosaxon country, even more so. In Southeast Asia, Chinese aren't known for high culture, but for trade and commerce. Outside Vietnam, most of Chinese loans words in Southeast Asian languages involve either food or money. The influence is akin to Yiddish in English.
Some people point to the Mao and Nixon meeting as great strategic breakthrough and symbol of what great power politics should look like. The reality is that the Mao-Nixon meeting was an anomaly in the long history of relations with China and the West. Much of China-Western relations over the last 500 years was conducted by multitudes of nameless Chinese and Western traders. The period from 1949-1979 was the only period were strategic concerns triumphed trade, because China had little to offer except instability and revolution. Even in this period, China's attempt to spread revolution in Southeast Asia was a threat to Western investments and corporate interest in the region. During the nadir of both the Qing Dynasty and Republican period, China was still engaged in its traditional commercial role. Throughout much of history of their relations with China, the goals of Britain and the United States were primarily economic,
IMAGINE JUST 10% OF CHINA BOUGHT MY PRODUCT
From the beginning, the allure of China to Western businesses and traders has been its sheer size I. One of the points that the USTR mentions is lack of market access for US companies operating in China, while Chinese companies face much less restrictions operating in the US.
This is supported by remarks by Henry Paulson and Charlene Barshefsky. As Paulson remarked
Trade with China has hurt some American workers. And they have expressed their grievances at the ballot box.
So while many attribute this shift to the Trump Administration, I do not. What we are now seeing will likely endure for some time within the American policy establishment. China is viewed—by a growing consensus—not just as a strategic challenge to the United States but as a country whose rise has come at America’s expense. In this environment, it would be helpful if the US-China relationship had more advocates. That it does not reflects another failure:
In large part because China has been slow to open its economy since it joined the WTO, the American business community has turned from advocate to skeptic and even opponent of past US policies toward China. American business doesn’t want a tariff war but it does want a more aggressive approach from our government. How can it be that those who know China best, work there, do business there, make money there, and have advocated for productive relations in the past, are among those now arguing for more confrontation? The answer lies in the story of stalled competition policy, and the slow pace of opening, over nearly two decades. This has discouraged and fragmented the American business community. And it has reinforced the negative attitudinal shift among our political and expert classes. In short, even though many American businesses continue to prosper in China, a growing number of firms have given up hope that the playing field will ever be level. Some have accepted the Faustian bargain of maximizing today’s earnings per share while operating under restrictions that jeopardize their future competitiveness. But that doesn’t mean they’re happy about it. Nor does it mean they aren’t acutely aware of the risks — or thinking harder than ever before about how to diversify their risks away from, and beyond, China.
What is interesting about Paulson's speech is he spend only one sentence about displaced US workers, and a whole paragraph about US business operating in China. While Kissinger writes books about China, how much does he contribute to both Democrats and the Republicans during the election cycle? China is increasingly makING it more difficult for US companies operating and those exporting products to China.

CONTINUED

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CMV: the EU shouldn't join the BRI

The U.S. China trade war has significant implications. Zhou of the South China Morning Post writes Chinese firms are less enthusiastic about investing in the country’s trade and infrastructure strategy and Beijing is more wary of throwing money at the BRI as it comes under pressure from the trade war and falling forex reserves. Because of this, China lacks the funding to continue the development of the BRI. Meyer of UPenn writes China’s planned to use at least $400 billion in funding from government banks, but the program has ballooned beyond infrastructure construction. BRI lending by major [Chinese]banks has dropped by 89% since 2015, and lending by commercial banks has ceased entirely. The EU joining the BRI solves these problems. Ciutrain of the European Institute of Romania finds that China cannot financially and logistically manage such an ambitious project alone. The only possible partner is the EU.
We agree that the EU is the only viable option to fund the BRI. Now, Climate change is a looming threat, yet it’s consequences are preventable. Turrentine of the National Resources Defence Council writes that climate scientists concluded that if humans don’t take immediate action to limit global warming to 1.5 degrees Celsius by 2040, the consequences will be baked into the planet.
China, once a key contributor to climate change has cleaned up their act. The World Economic Forum finds after years of industrialization, China’s environmental challenges are nearing a tipping point. The factories and power plants that have have polluted its air, water and soil, to the point where environmental hazards could lead to a significant risk to China’s society and economy. Because of this, China has taken steps to improve the environment domestically. Gardiner of National Geographic writes that Chinese car emissions standards set to take effect in 2020 will be comparable to Western ones. But the focus remains on industry. China has closed 103 coal-fired power plants and it cut steel production by 50 million tons. This is significant since China, a country that the Resources Institute finds contributes 26% of greenhouse gas emissions is taking steps to limit their environmental impact.
These actions have been counteracted by the BRI. The first reason why is because of coal plants. Lu of Friends of the Earth writes that “As China has reduced its dependence on coal domestically it has expanded overseas, to relieve excess domestic capacity.” This is quantified as Tabuchi finds that China is planning 1600 coal projects in 62 countries with the BRI. This leads Lelyveld of the RFA to conclude that, Chinese financial institutions are the world's largest funder of overseas coal plants. These coal plants are problematic since Mooney of the Washington Post finds that New coal plants that are planned could produce 150 tons of CO2 during their lifetime.
The second reason why is because of general infrastructure. The construction and use of the infrastructure planned with the BRI produces emissions. Zadek of Brookings states New infrastructure accounts for half of new sources of emissions. Investments BRI countries could make up 60 percent of global infrastructure, so BRI countries could be the largest source of growing carbon emissions over this critical period.
The third reason is deforestation. Losos of the World Bank reports that BRI roads and railways changing transport costs can shift markets and human populations. This can open frontiers to settlements that involve deforestation. Deforestation is problematic since Bennett of the Climate Institute reports 25% greenhouse gas production comes from deforestation since forests store double the CO2 than the CO2 in the atmosphere, so when deforested occurs, CO2 stored in trees is released into the atmosphere.
The impact is forced migration. The BRI’s increase of global emissions surpasses the 1.5 degree limit for climate change. By ignoring the threshold, the BRI exposes the planet to increasingly harmful natural disasters. The National Wildlife Federation finds that Climate change is worsening the impacts of natural disasters, including hurricanes, megafires, droughts, and floods. As natural disasters become worse, people are forced to flee. The World Bank reports that if greenhouse emissionf15
s aren’t cut, there will be 140 million climate migrants by 2050.
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